The Asian American Century: A Brief Historiography of Imperialism, Neoliberalism, and the Creation of Modern Asian America in the 20th Century – Part 3

Part 3 of 5 (7 min read time)

Written by Albert Joon-Ho Hur

[Edited by J]


In 1973, the CIA helped General Augusto Pinochet violently overthrow the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende⁵⁶.  With the IMF, that loan shark pillar of the Anglo-American Order, they piloted a policy program known as “neoliberalism” for the first time⁵⁷.  This was part of a plot that had been germinating for over two decades between the rightist Mont Pelerin Society — home of Milton Friedman, Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig Von Mises, Ayn Rand, and white supremacist, anti-government industrialist and Republican puppeteer Charles Koch — and official U.S. military defense outlets like the RAND Institute⁵⁸, as well as their philanthropic front and revolving door for the CIA, the Ford Foundation⁵⁹.  This policy program, as well as the attendant specific terms and conditions for international loans from the IMF and World Bank, would go on to further impoverish and devastate the poor populations of the developed and developing world for almost four decades afterwards, including America herself.  This was done in order to reduce them to vassal tributary states, extract resources from them, peddle them Western goods, and re-enslave the Black, Brown, and Yellow races that had revolted against the domination of the white supremacist colonizers and imperialists.⁶⁰

Ostensibly a “free market” ideology that preached greater privatization of the public sphere, neoliberalism was, in actuality, a thin veneer and anti-government Trojan horse for neo-colonization by white supremacists who had grown tired of direct imperialistic control through the military, particularly after the losses in the second Indochina War.  They now preferred to instead destabilize countries through political agitation and covert operations. They would back and install ultra-rightist or fascist governments as they had done in Korea and Indonesia, and then collaborate with them to introduce market “reforms” and “modernization” that would invite in foreign investment and multinational corporations.  These corporations — in alliance with corrupt local businessmen, industrialists, and politicians — would swiftly monopolize the economy, devastate all sectors, steal all the loot, and cement their domination of the local economic and political scene through mergers, acquisitions, and joint military partnerships, while cutting all spending for the people.

The end result of neoliberalism?  The local economies would be obliterated. Everything would be under the control of white supremacist multinationals and local traitors while the people were starved and reduced to dust, wage slavery, and sweat shops.  The country would be rigorously and methodically converted into an extraction site for enslaved human and natural resources and become a dumping ground for Western goods and imperialist propaganda from Hollywood. This allowed the white supremacist imperialists — the so-called “military industrial complex” and their backers and patsies in Washington — to continue to fund and reassert their world domination (planetary subjugation and continuous wars of suppression are costly!) throughout the entire 80s, 90s, and early 2000s. After the losses they had suffered in the 50s, 60s, and 70s, they recolonized the native people from whom they stripped away all social safety mechanisms and protections to forestall any potential popular protest or national revolt.

How does this process work?  After destabilization occurs, whether economically, politically, or ideologically through intelligence agencies from the Five Eyes and front organizations like the Asia Foundation masquerading as nonprofits, these corporations come in on the coattails of the IMF to engage in regulatory capture through corrupting or bribing officials and governing agencies in order to consolidate their market power through massive mergers and acquisitions. At the same time, they smuggle in more spies and military front organizations pretending to be NGOs until finally, the entire country and her people are under hegemonic subjugation: economically, politically, culturally, and psychologically, from the white supremacist imperialists that convene every year in Davos⁶¹.  The U.S., of course, sends the most delegates to this global ruling order⁶².

This process was famously dubbed “structural adjustment”⁶³ by the IMF. It is a collection of rules and prescriptions that call for “opening up to foreign investment” (Western, particularly Anglo-American, multinationals), “scaling back spending” (cutting social programs and protections for the people to enslave them to their military, political, and industrial masters), “deregulating the financial and business sector” (reducing the local economy and monetary policy to a casino for Wall Street and slashing any obstacles to monopoly domination by corporate cronies in bed with the military and politicians), as well as some hokum around interest rates that proved to be nothing more than snake oil after the failed maneuvers of the IMF during the global Asian financial crash of 1997⁶⁴.

“Structural adjustment” would quickly become an epithet among the recolonized in the following decades, as neoliberal ideology grew in popularity amongst the white supremacist imperialists as a novel resource extraction and localized enslavement methodology. This was all thanks to the collective, sustained efforts of the Mont Pelerin Society, its transnational networks and institutions, and the backing of the military, the spooks in the CIA, and racist white American industrialists who wanted to crack down on the Civil Rights Movement and roll back Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society.”

Charles Koch⁶⁵, its most famous member, first entered the political scene as a member of the John Birch Society⁶⁶.  This cabal of racists proved so extremist in its rightist, white supremacist, anti-government ideology that it was reviled and spat at even by William F. Buckley⁶⁷, the infamous white supremacist who declared “Why The South Must Prevail” and spoke out explicitly in favor of segregation in the South, urging the Southern White community to “take such measures as are necessary to prevail, politically and culturally, in areas where it does not predominate numerically” (“by any means necessary”, Buckley?), and arguing that it was “entitled” to do so because the “White community… is the advanced race.”  This genteel white supremacist imperialist thought that neoliberal Charles Koch and the John Birch Society he belonged to, as well as the Mont Pelerin Society, were too extremist.  The rightist racist hypocrisy and dishonest virtue signaling boggles the mind.

In the same year that the U.S. was withdrawing its troops from Indochina after suffering defeat at the hands of the Yellow Man, the Brown Man was used as the test subject for this new breed of right-wing white supremacist imperialism known as “neoliberalism,” falling prey to the newfangled tools and methods of market manipulation that were devised for neo-colonizing formerly subject races, and after Chile, even the white race.



In the days before the U.S.-backed coup that deposed Allende, graffiti started showing up on the walls around Santiago, Chile, that read “Jakarta is coming”⁶⁸.  This threat or warning was a reference to the chain of events in Indonesia that began in 1965, when Suharto⁶⁹, a powerful Indonesian ultra-rightist leader of the Army, falsely accused the Indonesian Communist Party of organizing a brutal coup attempt as a pretext for a crackdown on his enemies.  Over the months that followed, he oversaw the systematic extermination of 1 million Indonesians against all potential threats and anybody suspected of harboring leftist sympathies. This paved the way for him to seize power in 1967 from Sukarno⁷⁰, the 1st President of Indonesia, with the backing of the U.S.

Every step of the way, American imperialists assisted and enabled this holocaust of 1 million Yellow lives, what the CIA calls “the largest mass murder in the 20th century” (they would know!).  U.S. embassy staff member Robert J. Martens openly acknowledged this truth when he admitted he handed over a list of “communists” to the Indonesian Army as the terror was underway.  “They probably killed a lot of people,” he told the Washington Post in 1990, “And I probably have a lot of blood on my hands, but that’s not all bad.”

Sukarno had been a revolutionary nationalist who united Indonesians of all different races, cultures, and religions to win independence from their Dutch oppressor in 1949, and was democratically elected as President of the newly free country.  It was Sukarno that hosted the Bandung Conference in 1955, where he refused to align with the white supremacist imperialists and pursued a strategic alliance with the newly independent nations of Yellow, Brown, and Black to forge the New Emerging Forces⁷¹ to counteract neo-colonialism and imperialism.  The imperialist U.S., which desired to establish itself in Indonesia to attack China and open up its markets, never liked Sukarno.  

The same year as the Bandung Conference, the CIA plotted to assassinate him⁷².  Over the course of three years, the CIA attempted to subvert Sukarno by financing his political opponents and bribing public officials.  This continued until September 25, 1957, when President Eisenhower finally ordered the CIA to overthrow Sukarno. However, the attempted coup in 1958 by the Men in Black ended in failure.

This only strengthened Sukarno’s resolve and drew him deeper into the orbit of Mao’s China and the global anti-imperialist movement.  This led to his forcible removal by Suharto, sponsored by the U.S.⁷³   Suharto consolidated all political power with his cronies after Sukarno was “eased” from power and placed under house arrest, and he ruled as a corrupt military dictator until 1997, having embezzled an estimated $15-35 billion during his rule — the imperialist equivalent of 30 pieces of silver.  The template had been drawn for Chile’s coup, which would be implemented 6 years after Sukarno was deposed by Suharto and the U.S.  Except now, neoliberalism, the deadly new weapon of mass economic destruction, was primed and ready to fire after incubating for decades at the University of Chicago.

The U.S. State Department created a foreign exchange program in the 1950s called the “Chile program.”⁷⁴ It was partly funded by the Ford Foundation, that spy haven under which John McCloy, the founder’s chairman from 1958-1965, had literally established a three-person committee responsible for dealing with requests from the CIA.  The purpose of the program was to bring over Chilean students from Chile’s Catholic University in Santiago and indoctrinate them in the ideology and policy methods of the Mont Pelerin Society under one of its scriveners: Nobel Prize economist, Milton Friedman.  These approximately 100 students grew up to become the “Chicago Boys” (though more accurately, they should be called Chicago mobsters). They were the first generation of neoliberal compradors and sellout natives who were trained to execute the imperialist agenda in their homelands.

In August 1972, a year before the military coup, the CIA funded a 300-page economic blueprint which it supplied to Chile’s military and ambitious business families⁷⁵.  This was to prepare them for the looting.  Those privy to the neoliberal plan were able to use the report to make boatloads of money for themselves and their allies as General Pinochet and his military junta seized power — a true demonstration of the accuracy of another school of thought from the University of Chicago, the Efficient Market Hypothesis⁷⁶, which suggests that the only long-term advantage one can accrue in the stock market is insider information.  His economic advisors were all Chicago Boys, and they were prepped and at the ready to unleash a flurry of legislation, known as the “shock treatment”⁷⁷ (no mincing of words there!), that drastically reduced social spending, put industry into the private hands of their collaborators, and deregulated financial institutions, leading to the consolidation of monopoly power.  After Pinochet was installed, the World Bank and IMF, those economic prongs of the white supremacist Anglo-American Order, restructured Chilean debt on favorable terms, and foreign banks returned almost overnight.

While neoliberalism was a bonanza for the white supremacists, the capitalists, and the imperialists, it also completely obliterated the economy at large⁷⁸.  From 1970 to 1987, the poverty rate skyrocketed from 20 percent to nearly half the population.  The number of Chileans without adequate housing grew from 27 to 40 percent from 1972 to 1988. The capital city of Santiago became one of the most polluted cities in the world⁷⁹, and sickness and pestilence plagued the entire country.  Instead of the promised “nation of entrepreneurs” (sound familiar, America?), they got a reign of oligarchs and an unprecedented domestic debt crisis.  It was a large-scale fire sale of the country, as public enterprises were given away to the junta’s supporters with almost no money down, and all wealth became concentrated in the hands of the few — the traitorous lapdogs of U.S. white supremacist imperialists.

Neoliberals called this process the “Miracle of Chile”⁸⁰.  The program had been successful.  The economic devastation and ruination of the countryside and the Chilean people was a feature, not a bug.  A new weapon and tool of neo-colonial control had been forged and perfected.

(Part 1)
(Part 2)
(Part 4)
(Part 5)


  2. Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics by Daniel Stedman Jones (2012)
  3. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism by S.M. Amadae (2003)
  10. – 59d7f357d709

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